Yet they did not simply ‘overcome distance’; they also created ‘imaginative geographies’ producing ‘particular ways of reading unknown landscapes’. "Activity space" has been used to examine how people's habitual movements interact with their environment, and can be used to examine accessibility to healthcare opportunities. The purpose of this argument is not to propose a hierarchy between human geography and history, nor to suggest that one discipline gives origin to the other, is more relevant or even is more concerned with space. . What scholars now refer to as ‘the spatial turn’ is ‘the perception that social change can no longer be satisfactorily explained without a reconceptualization of categories referring to the spatial component of social life’.24 While many scholars have limited their discussions of the spatial turn to methodological questions inspired by the use of geographic information system technologies for the study of human geography and history, the turn towards spatial study also focuses on how spatial meaning is constructed and how space is represented. Walter Prescott Webb, The Great Frontier (Boston, 1952); Barraclough, ‘Metropolis and Macrocosm’, 79. Lawrence Stone, ‘History and Post-Modernism, III’, and Gabrielle M. Spiegel, ‘History and Post-Modernism, IV’, both in Past and Present, no. G. Barraclough, ‘Metropolis and Macrocosm: Europe and the Wider World, 1492–1939’, Past and Present, no. 1.5. Nevertheless, geography has not as yet formulated an explicit and unambiguous definition of geographical space. This is how geographers identify the parameters of regions within a greater area of space. See, for example, E. J. Hobsbawm, ‘The Machine Breakers’, Past and Present, no. Okey offers an exhaustive survey of European debates on Mitteleuropa throughout the twentieth century. For example, according to Peter Gould and Ulf Strohmayer, ‘Geography and space appear to be taking their rightful place alongside history and time after a century of neglect’: Peter Gould and Ulf Strohmayer, ‘Geographical Visions: The Evolution of Human Geographic Thought in the Twentieth Century’, in Georges Benko and Ulf Strohmayer (eds. For more on Braudel, see E.J.H., ‘Notes’, Past and Present, no. Spatial social history, in this sense, owes its existence to this kind of debate. ness and as forces limiting the free activity of individuals. Both Stone and Speigel offer lengthy, sophisticated rejoinders that accept the contributions of the linguistic turn, in that it has provided historians with more sophisticated ways to read texts, but insist that there must be a middle ground in which reality is not defined only as language.23 As is revealed throughout the course of this article, the linguistic turn and postmodernism within the pages of Past and Present provoked innovative articles that examine space, place and scale. What I do in geography is not space meaning ‘outer space’, or space meaning ‘atomic space’, or any of that; it is space as that dimension of the world in which we live. Christine R. Johnson’s ‘Renaissance German Cosmographers and the Naming of America’ also takes up the subject of place naming, but does so to show how Europeans created knowledge about what came to be called ‘America’, arguing that ‘the reality of a New World’ was founded within the context of cartographic, mathematical and scientific data, theories and conventions circulating throughout Europe in the sixteenth century.75 Johnson studies the naming of America through maps created in the sixteenth century, beginning with the map drawn in 1507 by the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller that first gave America its name. For full access to this pdf, sign in to an existing account, or purchase an annual subscription. This can be outdoors or indoors, and there are many different activity spaces because each society has its own. 223 (May 2014). The first four—economic, social, cultural, and political—reflect both the main areas of contemporary life and the social science disciplines with which geographers interact (i.e., economics, sociology, anthropology, and political science and international relations, respectively); the fifth is historical geography. In each case, the metropole attempted to industrialize the domesticated insects and their production ‘through radical simplifications of complex ecological process’. On the rare occasion when European historians looked beyond their continent, they considered non-European histories as ‘distinct units or spheres moving in a separate axis … [history] seemed to be lost in a world of nationalities which has disintegrated visibly before our eyes’. Clearly influenced by the linguistic and postmodern turn, beginning in the early 1990s the method of studying space and place, whether materialist or humanist, shifts towards a historical examination of naming and mapping.
2020 what is activity space in human geography