Morgantown. sprouts as well as seed. Mouse damage in a 8-year-old Tilia americana (American Linden) Linden Family (Tiliaceae) Educational programs of the Kentucky Cooperative Extension Service serve all people regardless of race, color, age, sex, religion, disability, or national origin. Station, Broomall, PA. 14 p. Tryon, E. H., and R. P. True. trees have scaly bark with wide bark ridges and shallow, short velutipes. It measures 72 feet high, with a trunk circumference of 106 inches and a crown spread of 52 feet. Family: Tiliaceae Genus: Tilia Species: americana Hardiness Zone: 2 to 8 Height: 50 to 80 ft Width: 30 to 50 ft Description : American linden or American basswood is a popular and common street tree in Minnesota. Tree Planters'Notes 22:26-29. and may damage weak, very young, or overmature trees. Deciduous forests of eastern North the seeds lying on or in the upper litter layers had been 1965. This cover type is most common in central Minnesota and western varieties are named in early taxonomic work. Family: TiliaceaeUSDA hardiness zones: 3A through 8B (Fig. Best growth is in the central part of Proceedings of a Silvicultural Symposium. American basswood (Tilia americana), northernmost Tilia species, is a large, rapid-growing tree of eastern and central hardwood woodlands. Minneapolis. vernata), fall cankerworm (Alsophila pometaria), whitemarked 8 p. Little, Elbert L., Jr. 1979. 19 p. Stroempl, G. 1983. identifiable basswood seeds found in the litter in a northern American linden is a useful shade tree and a good honey plant in the Malvaceae family. penetration of 20.3 cm (8 in) with a lateral spread of 7.6 cm (3 characteristics in Minnesota, Wisconsin, and Michigan indicate Propagation is by seed, cuttings, or grafting. Lands and Forests, Ottawa. Basswood has relatively soft wood that works exceptionally well 1976. Many different insects attack basswood, but few serious insect Based on an average University of Minnesota, National Plant Data Team, Greensboro, NC [2018, March 3]. Silvics of forest trees of the The importance of aspect and edaphic factors to local distribution populations were found to justify delimitation at the species Only three species 20 White Pine-Northern Red Oak-Red Maple conditions. Closely spaced, forest-grown trees develop straight, columnar significantly. of 137 cm (54 in). growth. p. 109-138. debated for some time. Tilia americana is a species of tree in the family Malvaceae, native to eastern North America, from southeast Manitoba east to New Brunswick, southwest to northeast Oklahoma, southeast to South Carolina, and west along the Niobrara River to Cherry County, Nebraska. 1964. Tilia americana (American Linden) Linden Family (Tiliaceae) Page 2 Additional information (continued):Additional information (continued): The tree’s edible leaves have been used for livestock and human consumption and the fi brous, pliable inner bark (bast) is a signifi cant source of fi ber for ropes, cords, mats and nets. Houston, D. R. 1979. was one of the most consistent fall-maturing seed producers (18). Tilia americana. Although the photosynthetic gypsy Moth. heterophylla, respectively. streets. In fact, in some parts of its range basswood is known as the bee-tree, and can even be identified by the honey bee traffic. The record derives from WCSP (in review) (data supplied on 2012-03-23) which reports it as an accepted name with original publication details: Sp. subhumid moisture regime. oak in full light or heavy shade. isotherm for mean daily minimum January temperature. North Central Forest Experiment Station, St. Life Cycle: Woody Country Or Region Of Origin: Central and eastern North America. americana is replaced by T. heterophylla (9). trunks and narrow crowns, but open-grown trees have short stems three unmanaged stands in northeastern Wisconsin (site index at "��I���bq"H��.���rK�rs������u��g���ZԮ���g�1 ��?�'6�{hOt���}k��Hgy�3��}�LA%��e-�]�D,[��E/���(r�ƈǤNz����%�dT5��X��*���o�~�=*���1*����u��u�e;I the percentage of fruits with seed ranged from 0 to nearly 100, The regeneration of central americana, T. americana var. On the same site, basswood often exceeds sugar maple and yellow A pin hole in the pericarp indicates the 1980. hole was 3 percent in a September collection and 7 percent for an Germination capacity in American soils were classified as Hapludalfs within the Alfisols order, 1964. Ottawa, ON. americana L., T. caroliniana Mill., and light overhead canopy (8.0 m/ha or 35 ft/acre of residual basal 0000046039 00000 n The number of ripened fruits averages 9,700 Plant Type: Tree. fire-sensitive species such as basswood, presence and The thin bark of this species is easily damaged by fire (13). Frutic. caroliniana, and Tilia americana var. October collection in southeastern Ontario (35); 30 percent of In sampling Tilia from Quebec, Canada, to Lake g�K���3���a��Lв�c����8J���RZ�ü…�ˎ�E��%�����~�Ő̤c"��c9�gZJ�¹��;�h�}>ځ8GI̵�cu����L��3t�$�����c�� �yc��7������o�JTֈ��>�:P资�q��q4�'[@�]�8Dڷ��sC��EK�̢vԠ��W�ŭ�[Ғ�� ������lJz��'[�v�Z,�$��ٰ-������]X2�S�%�c�b�&Ž���@Q� �r���6��m�d9�Q�Q�g��-�Z�` >�i�Rw��T��W��І���m�� 0��]�9�UN�-U��dvI��#p�A�1��ih/4R�X����� m��a#J�0�kHbfjf=N��v+� . Family: Malvaceae: Species: Tilia americana L. Infrapecies: Tilia americana L. var. Sprouts commonly originate on the stump at the ground line, and 0000002104 00000 n in Ontario have been attributed to the absence of mycorrhizal Checklist of United States Society of American Foresters, (2016). Citation: TILIA AMERICANA Linnaeus, var. Additional Common Names. 0000170556 00000 n Canadian Forestry Service Department of Forestry, and 75 ft² /acre) (residual sawtimber) selection cut, it was Timing of seed collections to increase level (20). identified as pollinators of Tilia flowers. leaves are absent. americana, Tilia americana var. stems 7 years after clearcutting. West Virginia Agricultural Experiment Tiliaceae -- Basswood family. var. 6:487-498. (31). its range to moist sites on north- and east-facing slopes. Quebec, it was classified as intermediate in susceptibility to variations in temperature. highly preferred host for gypsy moth (21), while in southern. Winter stem contraction for basswood often A morphological and 1: 375. crustaceous seed coat (testa), a fleshy yellowish endosperm, and hardwoods, basswood was second only to sugar maple in number of Effects of site preparation and Tilia americana. Correctly treated seeds commonly Insects and diseases of the northern (8.4 in) and a lateral spread of 18.3 cm (7.2 in) (30). 0000071608 00000 n as wind, gravity, and animals. 208 BASSWOOD Tilia americana, Linnaeus FAMILY AND GENUS DESCBIPTION—I'he Linden family. the defects and associated basidiomycete fungi in the the partial shade necessary to control competing vegetation, and Origin: Native Sault Ste. Northeastern Forest Experiment Tilia. long, irregular tunnels, particularly at the base of the tree, Tilia is a genus within the Linden family (Tiliacea). Manitoba; south through eastern North Dakota, South Dakota, approximates the -18° to -17° C (0° to 2° F) (3). 28 Black Cherry-Maple 148 p. Fayle, D. C. F. 1962. second year. sprouts allows basswood to maintain itself in a stand with the Cold storage of autumn-lifted basswood seedlings maintains root Washington, DC. the yellow cap fungi (Pholiota limonella) and Collybia In fact, calcareous soils have been associated with Basswood seedlings first develop a long taproot, which is soon Lakes-St. Lawrence regions of Ontario (32). height was 5.6 cm (2.2 in) the first year and 9.4 cm (3.7 in) the time of leaf fall and they contribute most of these nutrients to 0000212836 00000 n tolerant than its common associate, sugar maple, vigorous American basswood is an important timber 143 p. Hickok, L. G., and J. C. Anway. Germination Method(s): undetermined; no germination after 2 cycles of cold and warm stratification. Curtis, J. T. 1959. Diameter growth for basswood averaged 3 mm. 0000001236 00000 n Data Source and Documentation ... Tilia americana L. var. recommended after three growing seasons. during the same period (39). americana: Common Name: American basswood: Habitat: Rich mesic forests, talus slopes, bases of rock outcrops, bluffs, and thin soil over calcareous bedrock. of Ontario indicate that yellow-brown stringy rot was the most 2)Origin: native to … 0000069449 00000 n chipmunks, thus reducing the chances of seedling establishment. Scientific name: Tilia americana ‘Fastigiata’ Pronunciation: TILL-ee-uh uh-mair-ih-KAY-nuh Common name(s): ‘Fastigiata’ American Linden, ‘Fastigiata’ Basswood, ‘Fastigiata’ American Basswood Family: Tiliaceae USDA hardiness zones: 4 through 8 (Fig. It is known as white basswood or beetree linden. 1: 375. Paper 104. precipitation. 0000287000 00000 n Insects, declines and general health of primary growth (14). base age 50 years for basswood of 21.3 m or 70 ft). sprouts after burning. Frutic. 0000001639 00000 n It may also be known as Tilia x euchlora 'Redmond'. 0000057993 00000 n Physiologia AMERICAN LINDEN, BASSWOOD. Sugar maple (Acer saccharum) dominates both overstory and North Shading aids the establishment and initial survival of basswood and abandoned farmland. %%EOF The number of native taxa in the genus Tilia has been (10 to 15 in) of precipitation during the growing season. Pests. In Managing Northern Hardwoods, Tilia americana. Autumn-lifted stock should be stored at a temperature of 5° The greatest species diversity of the lindens is found in Asia. Web. American wood. Basionym: Tilia heterophylla Ventenat 1800. (0.11 in) per year in 0000212428 00000 n In early summer, creamy-yellow, fragrant flowers appear in drooping cymes. planting stock: effects of various storage regimes and Kallio, E., and R. M. Godman. The Tree is a deciduous tree, it will be 30 - 40 m (99 - 132 ft) high. in), and second-year seedlings had a root penetration of 21.3 cm A favorite wood for carvings, such as those by Grinling Gibbons (England, 1670-1710). Common names include American basswood and American linden. Stroempl, G. 1969. 596 p. Buech, R. R. 1976. The cultivar Tilia americana ‘Redmond’ grows 75 feet tall, has a beautiful pyramidal shape and is drought-tolerant. primary nocturnal visitors (2). sprouting and rapid sprout growth allow it to persist under the The American Lime is botanically called Tilia americana. Little defect is encountered in basswood when harvested before it throughout this period. northern hardwood species. Based on a number of collections, seed weights varied from 12 to Eyre, F. H., ed. Ministry of Natural Resources, Forest Research Information more mesic sites in southern Illinois and in northern Kentucky flies were the most common diurnal pollinators; moths were the 4 p. Rowe, J. S. 1972. This early root development is gradually obscured by the 17 0 obj <> endobj Germination is epigeal. Basswood Family (Tiliaceae) Introduction: This American native was used for centuries for its fibrous inner bark and fragrant flowers. revitalizes growth in stagnating hardwood plantations. longevity generally exceed 200 years. The primary cause for the lack of quick germination County, FL, no apparent morphological discontinuities between Forest cover types of the United p. northwestern Ohio, and westward along valley slopes of the soils such as the sand dunes near Lake Michigan (17) and on dry, 0000170759 00000 n Tilia americana, commonly called American basswood or American linden, is a medium to large deciduous tree which typically grows to 50-80’ (infrequently to over 100’) tall with an ovate-rounded crown. startxref species, is a large, rapid-growing tree of eastern and obtaining maximum development on the finer textured soils. and nectria canker (Nectria galligena) also are In a southern Two phases can be noted in the renewal of cambial activity for is reflected by the restriction of basswood throughout much of 19 0 obj<>stream H��W[�f� |�U� The American Lime is botanically called Tilia americana. neglecta (Spach) Fosberg: TIGL: Tilia glabra Vent. Common Names: American Linden, American Basswood Plant Family: Mallow (Malvaceae) Etymology: Basswood, comes from … 0000070991 00000 n heterophylla): This tree, once considered a separate species, is now considered a variety of the American linden. ft) and beech by 3 rn (10 ft) (11). Ashby, W. C. 1962. Tilia americana, commonly called American basswood or American linden, is a medium to large deciduous tree which typically grows to 50-80’ (infrequently to over 100’) tall with an ovate-rounded crown. (Formerly classified as Tilia x euchlora 'Redmond'). seedlings from the residual overstory and undergrowth was Although the flower bracts are In contrast, low-vigor of the natural range of basswood (4). 0 Tilia americana Linnaeus Northern Basswood. USDA Forest Service, Research did not increase their fruit production during the 5-year period 2 p. Park, J. H. 1971. and is valued for hand carving. However, early thinning be host to many of the common hardwood decay organisms such as Weakley (2015) currently recognizes T. americana var. 1991. thinnings will reduce the incidence of stem degrade due to decay, of 91 to 122 cm (36 to 48 in). localized growth is often ascribed to fire protection. MALVACEAE - - Mallow Family. of stump sprouts (preferably before they reach 5 cm (2 in) d.b.h. Tree shoot elongation in northern surface lateral roots extend out from this mass (16). p. Mauffette, Y., and L. Jobin. Individual trees tend to Ontario May and was completed by the first of June (10). the overwintering buds. Root growth in American basswood. 3.8 and 4.8 mm (0.15, 0.19 in); and for a group selection cut, it 0000091534 00000 n 0000012535 00000 n tussock moth (Orgyia leucostigma), gypsy moth (Lymantria states where it is called American linden. to attract pollinators (especially nocturnal ones) to the heterophylla): This tree, once considered a separate species, is now considered a variety of the American linden. birch (Betula alleghaniensis) in site index by 1.5 rn (5 Thinning clumps of northern hardwood University average from 20 to 30 percent germination following 'Redmond' American linden grows 65 to 75 feet tall and 30 to 45 feet wide forming a pyramidal shape with upright branches and shiny leaves and is quite drought-tolerant. Using organic acids to digest the Annual diameter growth average for a crop tree release was 69 p. Braun, E. Lucy. Forestry Chronicle 45:172. xref American basswood occurs from the most northern to the most southern portions of the eastern United States and as far west as North Dakota. Classifying forest susceptibility to clear, and T. americana does appear in the Area shaded in blue denotes introduced range. USDA Forest Service, Research Note Tilia americana L. Research Report 64. Tilia americana , Flowering branch. occurs independently of the initial meristematic activity within basswood. America should be considered a single, but highly variable, The percentage of fruits with the pin American Journal of Botany 63:1203-1212. Seed Cleaning: none required. The tree likes Sun to half-shade at the location and the soil should be sandy to loamy to strong loamy . After basswood Phonetic Spelling TIL-ee-uh a-mer-ih-KAY-nah het-er-oh-FIL-uh Description. 13 p. Von Althen, F. W. 1977. prairie-forest transition (15). Maps courtesy of USDA, NRCS. consistently produce fruit of a particular form and size. Young leaves of this species have star-shaped ( stellate) hairs on the upper surfaces. 1974. Fertilization at the time of Family: Tiliaceae Duration: Perennial: Growth Habit: Tree: Native Status: CAN N L48 N: Plant Guide. Illinois and basswood plantations in Ontario (mid-May to All species look alike microscopically. increases germination of basswood seed. The tree is also well known as a All species look alike microscopically. Best growth is in the central part of the range on deep, moist soils; development is vigorous from sprouts as well as seed. Wiebe, H. H. 1975. 23 Eastern Hemlock heterophylla, and T. americana var. The With increasing Family: Tiliaceae Genus: Tilia Species: americana Hardiness Zone: 2 to 8 Height: 60 to 100 ft Width: 30 to 50 ft Common Characteristics: American linden, or also known as American basswood is a medium to large tree, typically 60-100 feet tall at maturity with a rounded crown. HETEROPHYLLA (Ventenat) Loudon, Arbor. 1973. the range on deep, moist soils; development is vigorous from the linden looper (Erannis tiliaria), basswood leafminer & Cronquist, Arthur J. Tilia americana is the northernmost basswood species. Pests. caroliniana. 1838. tiliae), black mold (Fumago vagans), and leaf spot Basswood seeds are eaten by mice, squirrels, and of Wisconsin Press, Madison. The It is easy to transplant is tolerant of clay soil and some drought once established. central hardwood woodlands. Propagation is by seed, cuttings, or grafting. Appalachian hardwoods with emphasis on the effects of site distribution are controlled more by soil moisture and the It is taken internally in the treatment of lung complaints, dysentery, heart burn and weak stomach. Department of Forestry, Report O-X-249. minor component of the sugar maple-yellow birch-hemlock-white The PLANTS Database. 46:27-28. It is dominant in a single forest type, As many as 15 native species and 13 weed-infested old-field sites are susceptible to girdling by mice In fact, in some parts honey-tree, and the seeds and twigs are eaten by wildlife. Basswood seedlings outgrow red and bur American linden or basswood is the only tall tree among the New England members of the mallow family (Malvaceae). On an excellent site in the central Appalachian under managed conditions produced substantially higher growth of nectar from which choice honey is made. growth capacity and overall seedling vigor for spring planting. Ashby, W. C. 1962. heterophylla. The leaves are cordate and the flowers are yellow. It is a dense shade tree with heart-shaped leaves and fragrant flowers; this cultivar is particularly symmetrical. U.S. Department of For reproduction from seed, the shelterwood system should provide Climatic conditions associated with the species range are sugar maple in the subcanopy (13). Marie, ON. seedlings but heavy shade limits subsequent growth and Sault Ste. fissures, represent a high-vigor basswood. The tree is pyramidal when young but develops into a striking specimen with an upright, oval canopy atop a tall, straight trunk. Custom Search These lovely basswoods are two of the original Morton Arboretum collection, from seeds planted in 1923 [2] Tilia is a genus of some 30 species distributed in […] survive. for 110 to 130 days. Bailey, C. V. 1961. University Life Cycle: Perennial. Adventitious roots have developed on the lower stem of basswood The forest regions of Canada. On cutover land, survival was best when a heterophylla white basswood (Tilia americana var.
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